The Free University of Amsterdam and research institutions are also cooperating in the four-month trial, which aims to reduce overcrowding on peak services, a problem afflicting all three operators.

The test involves giving 600 registered season ticket holders access to a specially-developed smartphone app, which they use to report their departure and arrival times to the train company. These passengers receive refunds of up to €35 per week if they travel outside the busiest periods.

If the pilot scheme is a success, the system could eventually be rolled out on a national basis.