The locomotives and coaches, which were originally supplied by Bombardier, belong to LNVG’s vehicle pool.

The modernisation programme will begin next year, with work being carried out at Bombardier’s Kassel and Hennigsdorf plants. The first 11 pre-series vehicles are due to be completed in 2020.

The driving car interiors will be reconfigured to accommodate the needs of families, older people and passengers with wheelchairs. Seating and flooring will be renewed and passenger Wi-Fi will be upgraded.

First class will be converted to second class accommodation in 10 of the intermediate cars, which will add an extra 38 seats per train.

The LNVG double-deck fleet will be expanded with the acquisition of around 30 double-deck EMUs, which are due to be delivered by 2023 for use on the Express Cross Bremen/Lower Saxony network.