The certification is an important step towards the granting of an Authorisation to Place into Service (APS), which is the required legal permit for the commercial operation of new rolling stock in Europe.

Škoda Transportation says that the new trains, which are already more than two years late, are expected to enter commercial services in June 2019.

DB Regio placed a €110m order with Škoda Transportation in June 2013 for six of the 15kV 16.7Hz ac 6.4MW locomotives and six six-car sets of double-deck coaches, which will operate at up to 190km/h on the Nuremberg – Ingolstadt high-speed line.

Each train seats 676 passengers and accommodates up to 37 bicycles.