The results of these trials confirmed an injected quantity deviation of less than 1%, and a return fuel quantity below 10%, combined with zero static leakage and a minimal dynamic leakage. This results in reduced parasitic losses and an efficient usage of the pressurised fuel.

The poppet valve’s robustness enables highly accurate multiple injections, while the WDD dampens the propagation of pressure fluctuations. This offers 5-10% fuel savings across the whole duty cycle as well reductions of 50-90% of black smoke, 60-90% of CO₂ and 20-50% of NOx.

In micro pilot injectors for dual-fuel locomotives, 98-99.5% fuel substitution rates are also enabled by the poppet valve’s accurate switching even at the smallest injection quantities. The WDD and injector-integrated accumulators allow jumper lines to be used instead of rails to connect the injectors thereby saving space.