The book documents how the network has changed and adapted in the past 30 years, and includes more than 130 images, some of which have never been published before.

There are chapters on traction evolution and market reform, which has resulted in one of Europe’s most dynamic markets, with 440 operators and 170 companies now managing parts of the network. Fender also reflects on the future of the German network, including new high-speed lines and a national regular interval timetable from 2030.

Published by Key Books, the book is available from and is priced at £14.99.

Designing a winter-proof turnout

After observing the delays wrought by winter on the Dutch network, Mr Richard de Roos has proposed an new switch design that features a frog that moves vertically instead of horizontally.

In his new book, WIRAS - Innovative Switch and Crossing Design, de Roos outlines how the switch eliminates the need for point heaters to remove snow and ice from between the points, reducing energy costs and CO2 emissions.

Developed over the past nine years, the WIRAS turnout is fitted with vertical movable tongues which slide up and down between guides. The tongues are raised and lowered by a set of hydraulic short stroke cylinders, before being set in position by mechanical horizontal locking bars. The tongues and locking-bars can be electro-mechanically or electro-hydraulically powered.

The 196 page, hard cover book, which features 133 illustrations, is available via email from [email protected] for €35.50.