NS placed a €510m order with CAF in December 2015 for 118 of the 1.5kV dc suburban trains, which are based on CAF’s Civity platform. The order comprises 68 three-car and 50 four-car sets.

In addition to tests at CAF facilities, SNG sets will also undergo testing at the VUZ test centre at Velim in the Czech Republic and the Rail Tec Arsenal climatic chamber in Vienna before delivery to NS.

The trains are due to enter service from next year as part of a €2.5bn programme to expand and modernise the NS rolling stock fleet.