\r\nThe concession includes a new cross-border service, RB35, which will link D\u00fcsseldorf with Arnhem in the Netherlands via the border station of Emmerich. Local transport authorities in the Dutch province of Gelderland and the cities of Arnhem and Nijmegen co-operated with their counterparts at VRR to develop a specification for the new service. These authorities, together with the state government of North Rhine Westfalia, will jointly fund the cross-border trains.\r\nUnder the terms of the concession, Abellio Rail NRW will acquire the trains and transfer them to VRR, which will finance the trains and lease them back to Abellio. Abellio has yet to specify what trains will be used, although it has recently ordered Talent 2 emus from Bombardier for use in Germany.\r\nThe D\u00fcssseldorf \u2013 Arnhem service will need multi-system electric trains with 15 kV 16.7Hz ac for the German network; 25 kV 50 Hz ac for the Emmerich \u2013 Zevenaar section, which will be converted to the higher voltage as part of the extension of the Betuweroute extension; and the standard Dutch 1.5kV dc system for the Zevenaar \u2013 Arnhem section.\r\nIt is likely that the service to Arnhem will start in 2017. New trains for the international service need an authorisation to place in service both in Germany and the Netherlands. Given recent experience with national safety authorities in both countries, the approval process could take some time to complete and delivery schedules will need to reflect certification risks.\r\nThe concession also covers RB33 services between M\u00f6nchengladbach and Wesel, and includes an option to extend these trains along the 20km branch from Wesel to Bocholt. Alternatively, Bocholt could be served with portion working on the D\u00fcsseldorf \u2013 Emmerich \u2013 Arnhem service, with trains splitting and joining at Wesel.\r\nThe latter option would require electrification of the Wesel- Bocholt line, and a feasibility study is currently being carried out. For a 80 km\/h operation it is estimated that an investment of around \u20ac12 million would be required, rising to \u20ac15m for 100km\/h operation. VRR stipulates that the improved services on the Bocholt line must start at the beginning of the concession term in December 2016.