SRO was the country's original railway and is currently responsible for the Riyadh - Dammam network in the east and the Haramain high-speed line in the west. SAR built and operates the separate North-South Railway.

In 2016 all railway infrastructure was transferred to SAR and now SAR will take over all rolling stock and railway operations.

The process will take two to three years to complete and will pave the way for privatisation of railway operations.